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The treatment for pneumonia consists of curing the infection while preventing any further complications. Antibiotics are availed to treat bacterial pneumonia. Factors such as time and age should be considered. Treatment is precise when the particular type of bacteria causing the illness is identified and accordingly medications are used to treat it.
When an average person is diagnosed with pneumonia, the antibiotic of choice is Macrolide or doxy medications. A healthy person with asthma or other comorbidities are diagnosed, a combination of the medicines, Amox or augmentin plus macrolide or doxy. When an individual is diagnosed with series levels of pneumonia enough to be admitted in the hospital, an antibiotic course of ceftriaxone (amp, cefotaxime) should be administered. When the patient is not getting better after general care and is moved to the intensive care unit, antibiotic courses ceftriaxone or unasyn plus azithromycin or quin should be immediately administered. When the patient is sick enough for the need of Intensive Care Unit and is at the same time prone to high risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus or MRSA and pseudo, a combination of zosyn or cefepime, imipenem, and meropenem plus Vanco or linezolid. The absolute worst kind of pneumonia involves diagnosed patients exposed to high risk for MDROs or multi-drug resistant organisms and late-onset healthcare-associated pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia or ventilator-associated pneumonia or VAP. When treating such severe cases, a course of zosyn or cefepime, imipenem, meropenem plus Vanco or linezolid. When exposed to high risks for aggressive pseudo add quin, aminoglycoside plus azithromycin or quin plus an aminoglycoside.
If the patient fails to improve on augmentin, double check the required dose, while to address severe cases of pneumonia, high doses of typically 2grams twice a day are availed. Facts to note is the oral antibiotic for pneumonia are the macrolide, doxy, penicillins, and quins. The most common kind of bacteria that cause pneumonia is the H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, M. pneumonia, and C. pneumonia. When the patient fails to get better on the first line of antibiotics, suspect the bacteria Legionella spp or drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and DRSP. DRSP are resistant to macrolides and quins due to overuse of such medicines. When the patient persists to get better or is at risk for an MDRO because of the lifestyle of the patient, narrow down P. aeruginosa, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp, MRSA or other anaerobes which usually exist from aspiration.
Due to the rapid improvement in technology, medical services can be reached in remote areas with the help of drones. What was once a dream is now becoming a reality? In 2016, reports were recorded of a start-up company deploying drones to deliver medicine in Rwanda. This method has since become routine and more areas will benefit through this method.
Curing diseases through gene editing or CRISPR technology
One of the major medical breakthroughs recorded till date is the technique of editing embryos to avoid any possible genetic disorders. This method holds a lot of potentials as it can provide treatment for many diseases such as retinal degenerative disease and inherited diseases like cystic fibrosis and hemophilia.
ASL patients can communicate using their thoughts
Reports of a new technology which could help decode the views of those with functional brain activity but living in a wholly paralyzed body brought upon by a stroke, traumatic injury or ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis). The research has crossed beginning stages and awaiting trails.
Artificial pancreas for diabetes
In 2017, the first artificial pancreas systems were beginning to infiltrate the market to help people with diabetes regulate and regularize their insulin levels. These artificial pancreas systems will become more prominent in 2018 and further.
Reduction of LDL cholesterol
PCSK9 are powerful cholesterol drugs and are no doubt an enormous breakthrough. The study and findings were reassuring and recorded a 20 percent reduction in LDL from a group of over 20,000 patients.
Enhanced post surgery recovery
New research has been focused on ERAS or Enhanced Recovery After Surgery protocol that accounts for various methods of speeding up recovery after enduring surgery. It includes post-operative nutrition plans and alternative methods of pain medication to speed-up recovery. 2018 will see more hospitals looking at ERAS protocols.
More targeted and precise breast cancer therapies
2018 could see more precise treatments designed to target specific characteristics of cancer cells such as the protein which allows the cells to grow destructively.
Improved treatments for sleep apnoea
The new Remede sleep system is an implanted device that treats the central sleep apnoea by activating a nerve which sends signals to the diaphragm to stimulate proper breathing.
Next generation vaccines
The vaccine manufacturing process has been upgraded in 2018, involving freeze-drying so that vaccines can be safely kept and stored and transported to remote areas more effectively. Reports have been confirmed of companies investigating fast ways to manufacture vaccinations to make them more available.
The first human head transplant
Sergio Canavero is an Italian neurosurgeon set to perform the first human head transplant. This 36-hour lengthy procedure involves the removing the head of the subject and attaching it to a new body with all the nerves and blood vessels reattached along with the spinal cord glued with special bio-compatible glue.
Gas in the digestive system is standard as it is part of the digestive process. Excess gas present in the body is usually removed from the system in the form of burps or by passing gas or flatus. Gas pain occurs when the gas is trapped and does not move well through the digestive system. An increase in the presence of gas causes gas pain may be as a result of eating food items that exude more gas. Simple changes in eating habits can significantly reduce gas. Specific digestive disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome or celiac disease may lead to an increase in gas and gas aches.
A sensation of feeling full or pressure in the stomach (bloating)
An observable increase in the size of the abdomen (distention)
Burping right after consuming a meal is considered normal. It is observed that a majority pass gas up to twenty times in a day. The general misconception of having gas may be inconvenient or embarrassing, burping and passing gas is rarely symptoms of a medical condition.
Gas in the stomach is primarily caused when swallowing air while you eat or drink, although most stomach gas is released when burping. Gas forms and accumulates in your large intestine or colon when bacteria begin to ferment the carbohydrates, fiber, starch, and sugar that aren’t properly digested in the small intestine. Bacteria consume some of the gas produced, but the majority of the remaining gas is released when gas is passed through the anus.
Some of the high-fiber food items that cause gas include:-
Beans and peas (legumes)
Fiber-rich food items are known to increase the production of gas. Despite this fact, fiber is essential for keeping the digestive tract in good working condition to regulate blood sugar and cholesterol levels.
Avoid foods known to cause gas such as certain fruits like apples and pears, specific vegetables like broccoli, Brussels sprout and onions, dairy products and items containing sugar and starch.
Drink before meals, as drinking while consuming loosen stomach acids making it difficult to break down food. Drink 30 minutes before the meal to help better digestion.
Tend to eat and drink slowly. Rapid chewing and drinking can swallow a lot of air causing an increased presence of gas.
Consume over the counter digestive aid like Beano which contains an enzyme that can break down complex carbohydrates into more digestible sugars.
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